When walking other people’s dogs I have lost count of the times we are warned that their dog is “dominant” as s/he jumps up, pulls on lead, mounts people or other dogs, refuses to wait when going through a door etc etc etc…
Dominance theory is outdated and has been scientifically debunked.
Here are some interesting links regarding dominance in dogs:
One owner whose dog we used to walk refused to listen to all the evidence and, every time they witnessed their dog being “dominant”, would spray her with water or yell at her. This just about broke my heart, but no matter how hard I tried and how much progress I made through simple training, they wouldn’t listen to me. Thankfully this dog was rehomed, and I really hope she has found a loving, happy home now.